Generally speaking, truss designproblems are very popular in the literature of meta-heuristics . Theobjective is to design a truss with the minimum weight that does not violatethe constraints. The most important issue in designing truss is constraintsthat include stress, deflection, and buckling constraints.shows the structural parameters of this problem.
<span style="font-size:10.0pt;line-height:112%;font-family:"color:black;">The employed test functions can be divided intothree groups: unimodal, multi-modal, and composite. Unimodal test functionshave one global optimum, so they are suitable for benchmarking the exploitationof algorithms. The multi-modal test functions, however, have a global optimumas well as multiple local optima with number exponentially increasing with thedimension. Eventually, composite test functions are considered as thecombination of the first two groups with random rotation, shift, and biasing
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