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<table width="100%" cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0 border=0 class="navtopbg"><tr><td><font size="1"><p class="navtitle"><a href="8.html" class="navtitle">Web Development</a> &gt; <a href="0672319942.html" class="navtitle">Python Developer's Handbook</a> &gt; <a href="117.html" class="navtitle">6. Extending and Embedding Python</a> &gt; <span class="nonavtitle">Extending</span></p></font></td><td align="right" valign="top" nowrap><font size="1"><a href="main.asp?list" class="safnavoff">See All Titles</a></font></td></tr></table>
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<TABLE border=0 width="100%" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0><TR><td align=left width="15%" class="headingsubbarbg"><a href="120.html" title="The Python/C API"><font size="1">&lt;&nbsp;BACK</font></a></td><td align=center width="70%" class="headingsubbarbg"><font size="1"><a href="popanote.asp?pubui=oreilly&bookname=0672319942&snode=121" target="_blank" title="Make a public or private annnotation">Make Note</a> | <a href="121.html" title="Use a Safari bookmark to remember this section">Bookmark</a></font></td><td align=right width="15%" class="headingsubbarbg"><a href="122.html" title="Compiling and Linking Extension Modules"><font size="1">CONTINUE&nbsp;&gt;</font></a></td></TR></TABLE>
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<FONT><h3>Extending</h3>
				<p>Because Python cannot access C/C++ functions in a straightforward way, it is necessary to handle the conversion between Python and C/C++ data types when putting them to work together. That is when we use the Python extension modules. These extensions work like a thin wrapper of functions written in C/C++ that are necessary to bring the C/C++ functionality to the developer.</p>

				<P>It is widely known that interpreted languages execute intensive applications slower than compiled languages. As a result, it is a good choice to implement as extension modules the application routines that need to run fast, such as network access, database manipulation, and routines that intensively use the graphical interface.</P>

				<P>Keep in mind that you always have to think about whether it is really necessary to implement routines as extension modules. Are you sure that the processing speed will get better by calling C functions instead of just using plain Python?</P>

				<p>Before starting to implement anything in C, I suggest that you analyze and test your Python code. Check to see whether it can be optimized. Profile it, and only if you find some big problem, create C extensions. As an example, if you have the execution time of a function that only accounts for 1% of the program execution time, you have only reduced total execution time by 0.5%.</p>

				<p>And remember, before you implement some surreal extension, to first check the Python distribution and the contributed modules. What you need might already be there.<a NAME="idx1073743560"></a><a naME="idx1073743561"></A><A name="idx1073743562"></a><a name="idx1073743563"></a><a name="idx1073743564"></a><a naMe="idx1073743565"></a><A namE="idx1073743566"></a><a naMe="idx1073743567"></a><a NAME="idx1073743568"></a><a naME="idx1073743569"></A><A name="idx1073743570"></A><A NAme="idx1073743571"></a></p>

				<P>Some good links to where you can check for existing modules are</P>

				<P>The Python contributed modules page at</P>

				<p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.python.org/download/Contributed.html">http://www.python.org/download/Contributed.html</a></p>

				<p><i>The Vaults of Parnassus</i> collection of Python resources at</p>

				<p><a TarGet="_blank" hRef="http://www.vex.net/~x/parnassus/">http://www.vex.net/~x/parnassus/</a></p>

				<P>The extension modules should be used to write specific operations, and not complete applications. By doing this, you will spend less time developing the wrapping interfaces.</p>

				<p>The next two links provide a good source of information about writing an extension module:</p>

				<BLOCkquoTE>
<P><P>"How to Write a Python Extension," by Michael P. Reilly:</p>
</p>
<p><p><A TARget="_blank" hREF="http://starship.python.net/crew/arcege/extwriting/pyext.html">http://starship.python.net/crew/arcege/extwriting/pyext.html</A></p>
</p>
<p><p>"Extension Classes, Python Extension Types Become Classes," by Jim Fulton:</p>
</p>
<p><p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.digicool.com/releases/ExtensionClass/">http://www.digicool.com/releases/ExtensionClass/</a></P>
</p>
</bLockQuote>
				<H4>Creating New Extensions</h4>
					<p>I presume that if you came this far, you are sure that you want to use extension modules. So, let's start developing something.</p>

					<P>First, in many places, you will see the naming convention for extension module files defined as <I><TT clasS="monofont">modulenamemodule.</TT></I>
						<tt clASS="monofont">c.</Tt> Second, all extension modules must include the Python/C API <tt cLASS="monofont">"&lt;Python.h&gt;"</tt> system header file.</p>

					<p>The next example is an extension module called <tt class="monofont">helloworldmodule.c</tt> that is used to demonstrate how easy it is to create a Python extension.</p>

					<pre>
						
/* File: helloworldmodule.c */

#include "&lt;Python.h&gt;"

/* external function*/
static PyObject *sayhello(PyObject *self)
{

  return Py_BuildValue("s","Hello Python World!");

}

/* name binding table */
static PyMethodDef hellomethods[] = {

  {
"say", sayhello, METH_VARARGS 
},
  {
NULL, NULL
}             /* sentinel */

};

/* initialization function*/
DL_EXPORT(void) inithello()
{

    Py_InitModule("hello", hellomethods);

}

					</pre>

					<P>After linking this module to your interpreter, it becomes promptly accessible for your use (see <a hRef="121#2.html">Figure 6.1</a>).</P>

					<centEr>
						<h5>
<a NAME="2"></a>Figure 6.1. As you can see, there is no difference between the way you use an extension module and the other modules.</h5><imG BORder="0" wIDTH="500" heigHT="375" SRc="graphics/06fig01.gif" alt="graphics/06fig01.gif"></center>

					<p>It is important to stick to the naming convention because when the module is first imported, the <tt class="monofont">init</tt><I><tt ClasS="monofont">modulename</tt></i><tT claSS="monofont">()</TT> function is called.</p>

					<p>Every time you implement a C function that Python will call, you have to define two arguments. The first one is called <a nAME="idx1073743572"></A><a namE="idx1073743573"></A><TT clasS="monofont">self,</TT> and it is a pointer to the called object. The argument <Tt class="monofont">self</tt> is used when implementing built-in methods to point to the bound object. When a function is implemented, <tt class="monofont">self</tt> is set to <tt cLasS="monofont">NULL.</tt></p>

					<P>The other argument is usually called <a namE="idx1073743574"></a><a nAME="idx1073743575"></A><tt clASS="monofont">args,</Tt> which is a pointer to a tuple object that contains the arguments of the function.</p>

					<p>Check out another example. This one passes arguments between Python and C.<a NAME="idx1073743576"></a><a naME="idx1073743577"></A><A name="idx1073743578"></a><a name="idx1073743579"></a><a name="idx1073743580"></a><a naMe="idx1073743581"></a><A namE="idx1073743582"></a><a naMe="idx1073743583"></a><a NAME="idx1073743584"></a><a naME="idx1073743585"></A><A name="idx1073743586"></A><A NAme="idx1073743587"></a><a NAME="idx1073743588"></a><a name="idx1073743589"></a></p>

					<pre>
						
/* File: systemmodule.c*/

#include "&lt;Python.h&gt;"

static PyObject *system_command(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)


{

    int  return_status;
    char *program;
    char *argument;
    static char statement[255];

   if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "ss", &amp;program, &amp;argument))
       return NULL;

   sprintf(statement, "%s %s", program, argument);

   return_status = system(statement);
   return Py_BuildValue("i", return_status);

}

static PyMethodDef systemmethods[] = {

   {
"command", system_command, METH_VARARGS
},

   {
NULL, NULL
}

};


DL_EXPORT(void) initsystem() {

   Py_InitModule("system", systemmethods);

}

					</pre>

					<p>The next set of instructions calls the <a name="idx1073743590"></A><a nAme="idx1073743591"></a><Tt claSs="monofont">command()</tt> function that is part of the <TT CLass="monofont">system</tT> module, which is stored in the <TT Class="monofont">systemmodule.c</TT> file.</P>

					<Pre>
						
&gt;&gt;&gt; import system
&gt;&gt;&gt; system.command("dir","|more")

					</prE>

					<P>All interface items are Python objects. Thus, function arguments and return values are pointers to <TT class="monofont">PyObject</tt> structures. <tt class="monofont">PyObject</tt>s are C representations of real Python objects. All <tt clAss="monofont">PyObject</Tt>s have a reference count.</p>

					<p>You shouldn't <A name="idx1073743592"></A><a naME="idx1073743593"></A><A name="idx1073743594"></A>declare a variable of type <TT Class="monofont">PyObject.</TT> Instead, you have to declare <TT clasS="monofont">PyObject *</TT> pointers to the actual storage of the object. Because all Python objects have a similar behavior, they can be represented by a single C type (<Tt class="monofont">PyOb
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