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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Compiling and Linking Extension Modules





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Compiling and Linking Extension Modules

Two options are available for building Python extension modules. The first one compiles and links the module into the interpreter. This option makes the module always available to the interpreter.

The second option doesn't require that you recompile the interpreter because it dynamically links the modules to the system.

Linking Static Extensions to the Interpreter

Before starting, make sure that you have already compiled the interpreter's source code (refer to Chapter 17, "Development Tools," for more details). Building and installing Python before adding new modules is essential to have the libraries and other files in the right places.

Static Extensions on UNIX

On UNIX, Python modules written in C are easily identified by looking at the /usr/lib/Python1.5 directory. Most of the time, they are the shared library files with the .so extension. Although, if you are using HPUX, the extension is .sl, and on some others it is just .o.

The next few steps show how to create static extensions on UNIX.

Step 1.

You need to copy your module to the Modules directory.

Step 2.

You have to add the following entry to the end of the /modules/Setup.in configuration file, which is located in the Python source tree. This file has the list of all the external libraries needed by the interpreter.

									
*static*
modulename filename

								

For example,

							
hello /mnt/hda/python/helloworldmodule.c

						

If your extension module requires additional libraries, add the argument -llibraryname at the end of the line.

For example,

							
hello /mnt/hda/python/helloworldmodule.c -l/mnt/hda/python/auxmodule.c

						

The *static* flag builds the modules as static modules. The other option is to use the *shared* flag, which means that they have to be built as shared modules (known as DLLs on Windows).

The last step is to recompile Python as normal to include the extra module by typing ./configure and make in the top of the Python Source tree. The Python interpreter is rebuilt after that.

To execute the new interpreter and test your new extension module, just call it like this:

							
./python

						
Static Extensions on Windows

The following instructions are based on the use of Microsoft Visual C++ version 5.

First, you need to inform Python's include path. To do that, go to Tools, Options, Directories (see Figure 6.2).

Figure 6.2. You need to inform the include path.
graphics/06fig02.gif

It is also necessary to inform the library's location (see Figure 6.3). You need to add the python15.lib directory to your Tools, Options, Directories, Library files.

Figure 6.3. You need to inform the python15.lib path.
graphics/06fig03.gif

Now, the rest is easy.

  1. Using a text editor, open the \PC\config.c file.

  2. Look for the first comment. You need to add an external reference to the init function of your module.

    									
    /* -- ADDMODULE MARKER 1 -- */
    extern void initmodulename();
    
    								
  3. Locate the next comment. You need to add the module name and the init function.

    									
    /* -- ADDMODULE MARKER 2 -- */
    {
    "modulename", initmodulename
    },
    
    								
  4. Using a text editor, open the /PCbuild/python15.dsp file.

  5. Go to the end of the file. Locate the entry that references the yuvconvert.c source file. You need to add the location of your module's source file just before that entry.

    									
    SOURCE=..\Modules\yourmodulenamemodule.c
    # End Source File
    # Begin Source File
    
    SOURCE=..\Modules\yuvconvert.c
    # End Source File
    # End Target
    
    
    # End Project
    
    								
  6. Using Microsoft Visual C++, open the /PCbuild/pcbuild.dsw workspace.

  7. Select the Batch Build option and say Rebuild All.

By default, the EXE file and the DLLs will be saved in your /Pcbuild/ directory.

Linking Dynamic Extensions to the Interpreter

Now look at what you should do in order to create dynamic extension modules.

Dynamic Extensions on UNIX

The next few steps show how to build Dynamic extensions on UNIX.

Step 1.

Put the reference to your module in the Setup.in file. If your module references other source files, you should include them too. You might want to create a new Setup.in file in the directory containing your module.

									
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