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<table width="100%" cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0 border=0 class="navtopbg"><tr><td><font size="1"><p class="navtitle"><a href="8.html" class="navtitle">Web Development</a> &gt; <a href="0672319942.html" class="navtitle">Python Developer's Handbook</a> &gt; <a href="117.html" class="navtitle">6. Extending and Embedding Python</a> &gt; <span class="nonavtitle">Code Examples</span></p></font></td><td align="right" valign="top" nowrap><font size="1"><a href="main.asp?list" class="safnavoff">See All Titles</a></font></td></tr></table>
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<TABLE border=0 width="100%" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0><TR><td align=left width="15%" class="headingsubbarbg"><a href="126.html" title="Summary"><font size="1">&lt;&nbsp;BACK</font></a></td><td align=center width="70%" class="headingsubbarbg"><font size="1"><a href="popanote.asp?pubui=oreilly&bookname=0672319942&snode=127" target="_blank" title="Make a public or private annnotation">Make Note</a> | <a href="127.html" title="Use a Safari bookmark to remember this section">Bookmark</a></font></td><td align=right width="15%" class="headingsubbarbg"><a href="129.html" title="7. Objects Interfacing and Distribution"><font size="1">CONTINUE&nbsp;&gt;</font></a></td></TR></TABLE>
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<FONT><h3>Code Examples</h3>
				
					<h5>
Listing 6.1 Benchmark Extension (File benchmarkmodule.c)</h5>
					<PRE Class="monofont">
 1: #include "&lt;Python.h&gt;"
 2:
 3: static PyObject *
 4: benchmark_generate(PyObject *self, PyObject *args);
 5: {

 6:   int index, number_of_arguments;
 7:   PyObject *numberslist = NULL;
 8:   PyObject *check_value = NULL;
 9:   PyFloatObject *aux_float = NULL;
10:   double element_value;
11:   double minimum_value = 100;
12:   double maximum_value = 0;
13:   char *exist_check;
14:
15:   if (!PyArg_ParseTuple (args, "OO", &amp;numberslist, &amp;check_value))
16:      return NULL;
17:
18:   if (!PyList_Check(numberslist))
19:   {

20:     PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError, "Invalid list of values !");
21:     return NULL;
22:   
}
23:
24:   if (!PyFloat_Check(check_value))
25:   {

26:     PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError, "Invalid checking value !");
27:     return NULL;
28:   
}
29:
30:   number_of_arguments = PyList_Size(numberslist);
31:   exist_check = "No";
32:
33:   for (index=0; index&lt;number_of_arguments; index++)
34:   {

35:      aux_float = (PyFloatObject *) PyList_GetItem(numberslist, index);
36:      if (!PyFloat_Check(aux_float))
37:      {

38:         PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError, "Invalid list value !");
39:         return NULL;
40:      
}
41:      element_value = PyFloat_AsDouble(aux_float);
42:      if (element_value &lt; 0 )
43:      {

44:         PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError, "The values cannot be less than 0
            !");
45:         return NULL;
46:      
}
47:
48:      if (element_value &gt; 100 )
49:      {

50:         PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError,
                     "The values cannot be greater than 100 !");
51:         return NULL;
52:      
}
53:
54:      if (element_value &lt; minimum_value)
55:          minimum_value = element_value;
56:
57:      if (element_value &gt; maximum_value)
58:          maximum_value = element_value;
59:
60:      if (element_value == PyFloat_AsDouble(check_value))
61:          exist_check = "Yes";
62:   
}
63:   return Py_BuildValue("(ffs)", minimum_value, maximum_value,
                              exist_check );
64: 
}
65:
66: static PyMethodDef benchmark_methods[] = {

67:       {
"generate", benchmark_generate, METH_VARARGS, "Minimum Value,
             Maximum Value"
},
68:       {
NULL, NULL
}
69: 
};
70:
71: DL_EXPORT(void) initbenchmark()
72: {

73:     Py_InitModule("benchmark", benchmark_methods);
74: 
}
</PRE>
				
				<P>Line 9: <tt clASS="monofont">PyFloatObject</Tt> is a subtype of <tt class="monofont">PyObject.</tt></p>

				<p>Line 18: Checks whether the first argument is a list.</p>

				<p>Line 24: Checks whether the type of the second argument is a float.</p>

				<p>Line 26: Raises a <tt clAss="monofont">TypeError</Tt> exception.</p>

				<p>Line 30: Returns the list's length.</P>

				<p>Line 60: <tt cLass="monofont">PyFloat_AsDouble</TT> converts a Python Float into a C double.</P>

				<P>Next, you can see a small interaction with this program. To execute it, we have to pass two arguments: The first one is a list of numbers, and the second one is a float number. This program returns the minimum and maximum values from the list, along with a logical test that informs whether the float number is part of the list.</p>

				<pre>
					
Python 1.5.2 (#0, May 30 2000, 00:16:14) [MSC 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Copyright 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam
&gt;&gt;&gt; import benchmark
&gt;&gt;&gt; benchmark.generate([1.1],1.1)
(1.1, 1.1, 'Yes')
&gt;&gt;&gt; benchmark.generate([1,2,3],4.5)
(1.0, 3.0, 'No')
&gt;&gt;&gt;

				</PRE>

				<H4>Wrapping C Functions</h4>
					<p>By wrapping functions, you can use C code files, without changing them. Every time you feel the need to include a C source code file in your Python project, it is necessary to create a special module that wraps its functions, and to include a reference to the file in the <tt CLASs="monofont">python15.dsp.</tt></p>

					<P>The next example wraps the functions stored in the <TT Class="monofont">cfunctions.c</tt> file.</p>

					
						<h5>
Listing 6.2 File: <tt class="monofont">cfunctions.c</tt></h5>
						<prE clAss="monofont">
#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

void display_info(char *user, char *domain, char *country) {


   if (country == "USA")
       printf("%s@%s\n", user, domain);
   else
       printf("%s@%s.%s\n", user, domain, country);

}

int calc_year (int f_year, int m_year, int l_year) {

   int result;
   result = ((l_year + m_year + f_year) / 3);
   return result;

}
</pRe>
					
					
						<h5>
Listing 6.3 File: <tt ClasS="monofont">wrappermodule.c</TT></H5>
						<pre cLASS="monofont">
 1: #include "Python.h"
 2:
 3: extern void display_info(char *, char *, char *);
 4: extern int calc_year(int, int, int);
 5:
 6: static PyObject *wrapper_display_info(PyObject *self, PyObject *args,
                                              PyObject *kwargs)
 7: {

 8:    char *user = "None";
 9:    char *domain = "None";
10:    char *country = "None";
11:    static char *keywords[] = {
"user","domain","country",NULL
};
12:
13:    if (!PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords(args, kwargs, "|sss", keywords,
             &amp;user, &amp;domain, &amp;country)){

14:       return NULL;
15:    
}
16:
17:    display_info(user, domain, country);
18:    return Py_BuildValue("");
19: 
}
20:
21: static PyObject *wrapper_calc_year(PyObject *self, PyObject *args) {

22:    int f_year, m_year, l_year, result;
23:    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "iii", &amp;f_year, &amp;m_year, &amp;l_year)) {

24:        return NULL;
25:    
}
26:    result = calc_year(f_year, m_year, l_year);
27:    return Py_BuildValue("i", result);
28: 
}
29:
30: static PyMethodDef wrappermethods[] = {

31:    {
"display_info", wrapper_display_info, METH_VARARGS|METH_KEYWORDS
},
32:    {
"calc_year", wrapper_calc_year, METH_VARARGS
},
33:    {
NULL, NULL
}
34: 
};
35:
36: void initwrapper() {

37:    Py_InitModule("wrapper", wrappermethods);
38: 
}
</pre>
					
					<p>Lines 3 and 4: Identify which functions are external to this file.</P>

					<P>Line 11: Creates a dictionary of keywords to be accepted by the function.</P>

					<P>Line 13: <tt clASS="monofont">PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords()</Tt> parses the Python-level parameters by accepting a third <tt class="monofont">"PyObject *"</tt> parameter.</p>

					<p>Line 31: The <tt class="monofont">METH_VARARGS|METH_KEYWORDS</tT> clause makes it clear that keyword elements are expected.</p>

					<p>Next, you can see a small interaction with this program. The first function builds an email address based on the information provided. The other one calculates the average age of a family of three people based on the number of years that are passed to the function.</P>

					<pre>
						
Python 1.5.2 (#0, May 30 2000, 00:56:46) [MSC 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Copyright 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam
&gt;&gt;&gt; import wrapper
&gt;&gt;&gt; wrapper.display_info("andre2530","aol.com","br")
andre2530@aol.com.br
&gt;&gt;&gt; wrapper.calc_year(10, 30, 35)
25
&gt;&gt;&gt;

					</Pre>

				
			</foNt>
<P><TABLE width="100%" border=0><TR valign="top"><TD><font size=1 color="#C0C0C0"><br></font></TD><TD align=right><font size=1 color="#C0C0C0">Last updated on 1/30/2002<br>Python Developer's Handbook, &copy;&nbsp;2002 Sams Publishing</font></TD></TR></TABLE></P>
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