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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Manipulating Images





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Manipulating Images

Python has comprehensive support for handling image files. The foundation of this structure is based on the Python Imaging Library (commonly known as PIL).

PIL is a set of Python modules that compound an extensive framework written by Fredrik Lundh, from Secret Labs AB. PIL is able to convert and manipulate image files of several different formats (such as GIF, JPEG, and PNG), and provides powerful graphics capabilities. Its framework is cross-platform, which allows it to perform image manipulation and processing in different systems using the same code. PIL also supports some Windows-specific extensions that enable it to display images using the Windows API.

Some of the main features of PIL are summarized in the following:

  • PIL can load image objects from a variety of formats.

  • It enables the Python interpreter to handle image objects.

  • PIL enables a rich set of image operations to be applied to those objects.

  • It saves images files to disk.

  • It uses graphical interfaces, such as Tkinter and PythonWin in order to show the resulting images.

  • It allows you to create thumbnails automatically from a collection of images.

  • You can create, read, and write different images formats, including JPEG, GIF, and TIFF.

  • It provides supports to some animation formats, such as FLI and MPEG.

  • It automatically identifies file formats.

  • PIL can be used to make file conversions between graphic files of different formats.

  • PIL also handles changes in the image file's color table (for example, it can change the color table of a file from RGB to grayscale).

These are just some of things you can do with PIL. You are invited to create an image object in the interpreter using PIL, and play around for a while.

PIL's home page and download center is located at the following site:

http://www.pythonware.com/products/pil/index.htm

Similar to Python itself, PIL is copyrighted but can be used without fee.

Python Imaging Library

The Image class is the most important class of PIL. To use it, you need to import the Image module, and launch the open method. This method is very fast because it doesn't decode the whole image. It just reads the image header in order to start working with the file.

						
>>> import Image
>>> im = Image.open("c:\\logo.gif")

					

As you can see in the next example, you can also load an image (GIF or JPEG) straight from a URL without saving it to a file first. Note that filelocation is any file handle like python object.

						
>>> filename = "http://www.lessaworld.com/images/brazil.gif "
>>> filelocation = urllib.urlopen(filename)
>>> im = Image.open(filelocation)
				
					

Every image object that is created by the open function exposes three attributes: format, size, and mode.

im.format Identifies the source format of the image.

im.size It is a 2-tuple variable that contains the image's width and height.

im.modeProvides the image mode, such as grayscale (L), CMYK, or RGB mode. The attribute called Image.MODES lists all the modes supported by the library.

								
>>> print im.format, im.size, im.mode
GIF (200, 130) L

							

If you want to generate a thumbnail image, you need to call the thumbnail method and provide the size of the new image. Note that a new object isn't created because the change is applied to the old object. Therefore, the image must be copied if you need both the original and thumbnail images.

						
>>> im.thumbnail((50, 32))

					

After you have done everything that you need, you can think about saving the new file. Notice that the first argument in the save method is the name of the output file, and the second argument is the format to be saved. If the format argument is omitted, the format is deduced from the file extension.

						
>>> outfile = "a:\\out.jpg"
>>> im.save(outfile, "JPEG")

					

Many other methods can be applied on the image. For cutting, pasting, and merging images, you can use im.crop(), im.paste(), and im.transpose(). For resizing and rotating an image, im.resize() and im.rotate() are available.

For a complete tutorial about using PIL, check out the Python Imaging Library Handbook at the following site:

						
					http://www.pythonware.com/library/pil/handbook/index.htm
				
					

Other Modules

Besides PIL, some other modules can help you manipulate graphic and image files.

imghdr Module

This module recognizes image files based on their headers'first few bytes. The imghdr module is part of the standard distribution. This module implements the what() function, which returns the file type.

							
>>> import imghdr
>>> imgfile = imghdr.what("d:\\logo.gif")
>>> print imgfile
gif

						

The file types currently supported are: SGI image library, GIF ('87 and '89 variants), PBM (portable bitmap), PGM (portable graymap), PPM (portable pixmap), TIFF (can be in Mot ... ... (Not finished, please download and read the complete file)

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