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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Regular Expressions





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Regular Expressions

We already know that the string module is used to apply basic manipulation operations on strings; meanwhile, at the time of developing advanced routines, you might need to enhance Python's string-processing capabilities. That's when you should consider using the re module (re stands for regular expression).

Regular expressions are strings, which contain a mix of text and special characters, that let you define complicated pattern matching and replacement rules for other strings.

Some of the special characters that compound regular expressions must be preceded by backslashes in order to be matched. Consequently, regular expressions are usually written as raw strings because they tend to use a lot of backslashes. That means that instead of writing "\\b(usa)\\d", it is much easier to say r"\b(usa)\d".

Older versions of Python used to support the following regular expression obsolete modules are: regexp, regex, and regsub.

Table9.3. Special Characters Recognized by the re Module
Special Character What It Matches
. Any character (except newline by default).
^ The start of the string, or of a line (in case of multiline re's).
$ The end of the string, or of a line (in case of multiline re's).
* Any number of occurrences of the preceding expression.
+ 1 or n number of occurrences of the preceding expression.
| Either the preceding re or the following re, whichever is true.
? 1 or 0 number of occurrences of the preceding expression.
*? Similar to *, but it matches as few occurrences as possible.
+? Similar to +, but it matches as few occurrences as possible.
?? Similar to ?, but it matches as few occurrences as possible.
{ m, n } From m to n occurrences of the preceding expression. It matches as many occurrences as possible.
{ m, n }? From m to n occurrences of the preceding expression. It matches as few occurrences as possible.
[ list ] A set of characters, such as r"[A-Z]".
[^ list ] Characters that are not in the list.
( re ) Matches the regular expression as a group. It specifies logical groups of operations and saves the matched substring.
Anystring The string anystring.
\w Any alphanumeric character.
\W Any non-alphanumeric character.
\d Any decimal digit.
\D Any non-decimal digit.
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