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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> HTTP





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HTTP

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a simple text-based protocol used for World Wide Web Applications. Both Web servers and Web browsers implement this protocol.

The HTTP protocol works by having a client that opens a connection, and sends a request header to a Web server. This request is a simple text-based form that contains the request method (GET, POST, PUT, ), the name of the file that should be opened, and so forth.

The server interprets the request and returns a response to the client. This response contains the HTTP protocol version number, as well as a lot of informationsuch as cookies, document type and size, and so onabout the returned document.

For details about the HTTP specification, you'd better check:

					
http://www.w3.org/Protocols
				

Next, I list some Python projects that somehow use HTTP techniques.

M2Crypto, by Ng Pheng Siong's

M2Crypto makes the following features available to the Python programmer: RSA, DH, DSA, HMACs, message digests, symmetric ciphers, SSL functionality to implement clients and servers, and S/MIME v2.

						
http://mars.post1.com/home/ngps/m2/
					

Note

With Python-2.0, the socket module can be compiled with support for the OpenSSL library, so it can handle SSL without trouble.



CTC (Cut The Crap), by Constantinos Kotsokalis

This is a http proxy software written in Python, which cuts advertisement banners from your Web browser display.

						
http://softlab.ntua.gr/~ckotso/CTC/
					

Alfajor, by Andrew Cooke

Alfajor is an HTTP cookie filter, written in Python with an optional GUI. It acts as an HTTP proxy (you must configure your browser to use it) and can either contact sites directly or work with a second proxy (for example, a cache). Note that Alfajor does not fully conform to any HTTP version. However, in practice, it works with the vast majority of sites.

						
http://www.andrewcooke.free-online.co.uk/jara/alfajor/
					

Building Web Servers

In order to build Internet servers using Python, you can use the following modules:

SocketServer It is a generic socket-based IP server.

BaseHTTPServer It provides the infrastructed required by the next two modules.

SimpleHTTPServer It allows you to have a simple Web server.

CGIHTTPServer It enables the implementation of a CGI-compliant HTTP server.

The SocketServer Module

The SocketServer module exposes a framework that simplifies the task of writing network servers. Rather than having to implement servers using the low-level socket module, this module provides four basic server classes that implement interfaces to the protocols used most often: TCPServer, UDPServer, StreamRequestHandler, and DatagramRequestHandler. All these classes process requests synchronously. Each request must be completed before the next request can be started.

This kind of behavior is not appropriate if each request takes a long time to complete because it requires a lot of computation and the client might be slow to process all data. In order to handle the requests as separate threads, you can use the following classes: ThreadingTCPServer, ThreadingUDPServer, ForkingUDPServer, and ForkingTCPServer.

Both the StreamRequestHandler and DatagramRequestHandler classes provide two file attributes that can be used to read and write data from and to the client program. These attributes are self.rfile and self.wfile.

The following code demonstrates the usage of the StreamRequestHandler class, which is exposed by the SocketServer module.

							
import SocketServer
port = 8000
class myRequestHandler(SocketServer.StreamRequestHandler):
    def handle(self):
        print "connection from ", self.client_address
        self.wfile.write("data")

srvsocket = SocketServer.TCPServer(("", port), myRequestHandler)
print "The socket is listening to port", port
srvsocket.serve_forever()

						

Tip

Always remember that you need to use user-accessible ports numbers.



Next, you have the classes provided by this module:

TCPServer((hostname, port), request_handler) Implements a server that supports the TCP protocol.

UDPServer((hostname, port), request_handler) Implements a server that supports the UDP protocol.

UnixStreamServer((hostname, port), request_handler) Implements a server that supports a stream-oriented protocol using UNIX domain sockets.

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