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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Summary





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Summary

Networking is the word behind all new technology that arrives in the market these days. Networking systems are well defined by the OSI/ISO(Open Systems Interconnection/International Standards Organization) seven-layer model, which suggests the following levels of networking process: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.

Network connections can be of two types: connection-oriented (such as TCP) or packet-oriented (such as UDP).

The network layer of the TCP/IP stack is provided by the Internet Protocol (commonly known as IP). The IP address defines the addressing and routing of information around the network, uniquely identifying a network interface.

The transport layer is provided by the TCP, which is the main form of communication over the Internet because it provides a reliable, session-based service for the delivery of sequenced packets.

UDP is a connectionless transport protocol that does not guarantee delivery or packet sequence. This protocol provides an unreliable but fast datagram service.

The most commonly used application protocols (such as HTTP, FTP, Gopher, Telnet, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, and NNTP) are built on top of TCP/IP infrastructures. Actually, they don't have to know any details about TCP nor about IP because there is a thin layer called " sockets " between TCP/IP and them.

A port is an entry point to an application/service that resides on a server.

Sockets are objects that allow programs to accept and make connections, such as to send and receive data. They are mostly used for TCP and UDP connections. The socket module is a very simple object-based interface that provides access to a low-level BSD socket-style network.

The asyncore module provides the basic infrastructure for writing and handling asynchronous socket service clients and servers that are result of a series of events dispatched by an event loop.

The select module is used to implement polling and to multiplex processing across multiple I/O streams without using threads or subprocesses.

In order to build Internet servers using Python, HTTP modules that you can use are as follows:

  • SocketServer It is a generic socket-based IP server.

  • BaseHTTPServer It provides the infrastructure required by the next two modules.

  • SimpleHTTPServer It allows you to have a simple Web server.

  • CGIHTTPServer It enables the implementation of a CGI-compliant HTTP server.

The httplib module implements the client side of the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) protocol.

The urllib and urlparse modules are useful tools provided by Python to process URLs. The urllib module is a high-level interface to fetch data across the World Wide Web. It is normally used as an outer interface to other modules, such as httplib, ftplib, gopherlib, and so on. On the other hand, the urlparse module manipulates a URL string, parsing it into tuples.

The ftplib module implements the client side of the FTP protocol.

The smtplib module provides a low-level client interface to the SMTP protocol that can be used to send emails in the Internet.

The poplib module provides a low-level POP3 client-side interface for connecting to a POP3 server using a client protocol.

The imaplib module provides a low-level IMAP client-side interface for connecting to an IMAP4 mail server using the IMAP4rev1 client protocol.

The nntplib module implements a low-level interface to the client side of the NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) protocola service mostly known for providing newsgroups. This protocol is also used to exchange Usenet news articles between servers.

The telnetlib module implements a client for the telnet protocol. This protocol is used to connect to remote computers. After you have established your telnet connection, you can execute UNIX commands remotely on that computer through your telnet interface.

The gopherlib module is a minimal client-side implementation of the Gopher protocol.


Last updated on 1/30/2002
Python Developer's Handbook, © 2002 Sams Publishing

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2002, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.

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