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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Configuring Web Servers for Python/CGI Scripts





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Configuring Web Servers for Python/CGI Scripts

The next topics show you how to configure the most used Web servers in the market. Mostly you will see how to handle Python CGI scripts within Apache and Microsoft IIS Web servers.

Python in Apache

First, let's see how Apache handles requests.

When a file is called, Apache executes an action, which internally is known as handler. These handlers are usually implicitly related to the files, based on the file type. However, new Apache releases are able to assign handles to filename extensions or file locations, instead of only work with the file type.

Python script files are handled in exactly the same way as other CGI scripts. Once a request is received, Apache calls the Python interpreter asking it to run the specific script. Depending on the Apache configuration, there are several actions to be performed when receiving a request (for instance, user authentication and file transfer).

Apache comes with a predefined set of handlers for basic routine tasks. However, there are several third-party handler applications that can be very useful as well, such as the mod_python and mod_pyapache modules. Using these modules is not strictly necessary, but it reduces the overhead of your server and increases the speed of your application. Both of these reasons occur because the Python interpreter is not called for every single connection anymore. You can create Apache Handlers by building them into the Web Server, adding them to the Action directive, or implementing a module.

The Apache official Web site is as follows:

http://www.apache.org/

Configuring Apache for Python

The following guidelines will help you configure your Apache installation to run Python in both Windows and UNIX systems. Steps 18 are specific for Win32 configurations.

Step 1.

Installing Python in the C:\ Python directory is a more convenient way to handle environment paths.

Step 2.

It is convenient if you have your CGI files in the same drive as the WINNT system files.

Step 3.

Verify if you have a system variable called PATH that contains the Python interpreter's (python.exe) directory (if necessary, create it).

Step 4.

Create a system variable called PYTHONPATH. It must contain the list of directories to be used when searching for Python files.

Step 5.

Use ASSOC to setup a file extension for Python.

									
ASSOC .py=PythonScript

								
Step 6.

Use FTYPE to associate the previous setting to the Python executable.

									
FTYPE PythonScript=python.exe %1 %*

								
Step 7.

Add the extension .py to the system environment variable PATHEXT. This variable stores the list of executable extensions (for example, PATHEXT=.EXE;.COM;.BAT;.CMD;.py).

Step 8.

Install Apache on your system's root drive, that is, "c:\ Apache". Installing Apache in this directory helps you during the whole configuration process.

Step 9. Edit your C:\WINNT\system32\drivers\etc\hosts ile, adding the IP address of your machine. This file is the NT equivalent to UNIX /etc/hosts table file.

The following steps tell you how to configure the Apache Web Server. Note that nowadays, the whole Apache configuration can be set using one unique file: httpd.conf.

Step 10.

In the access.conf file, make the following changes:

									
<Directory /apache/htdocs>
Options Indexes ExecCGI for Python/CGI scripts>

								
Step 11.

In the httpd.conf file, make the following changes:

									
ServerRoot /apache

								
Step 12.

In the srm.conf file, make the following changes. You also have the option to set PYTHONPATH here using the command SetEnv, instead of defining it as a system environment variable. Note that there are two AddHandler settings. The former identifies the extension to be associated with CGI scripts, and the latter allows you to use the .cgi extension in your files, in order to hide from crackers, the language used to implement your site. Of utmost importance is to make certain that you're using Python in unbuffered mode (SetEnv PYTHONUNBUFFERED 1) and to set (or pass) PYTHONPATH as a system environment variable. Forgetting to set either of these parameters is the most common reason for "premature end of header" errors.

									
DocumentRoot /apache/htdocs
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /apache/cgi-bin/
PassEnv PYTHONPATH
SetEnv PYTHONUNBUFFERED 1
AddHandler cgi-script .py
AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

								
Step 13.

Place your scripts in your cgi-bin directory.

Step 14.

If you are using an UNIX system, make sure that the first line of your script contain a shebang to identify the location of the Python interpreter.

Step 15. Optionally, you can configure the server to run scripts only from the cgi-bin directory by replacing the following line in the access.conf file:
									
<Directory /path/to/your/httpd/cgi-bin> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
 </Directory>

								
with
									
<Directory /path/to/your/httpd/cgi-bin> Options FollowSymLinks ExecCGI
 </Directory>

								

If you want to run your scripts from any directory, comment the previous setting and add the following one:

									
<Directory /path/to/your/httpd/htdocs> Options All </Directory>

								
Step 16.

Set the read and execute permissions of your script. If you are using an UNIX system, you should type chmod 755 yourscript.py.

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