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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> The cgi Module





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The cgi Module

The cgi module accepts sys.stdin and environment variables set by the server as input sources. The output is sent directly to sys.stdout, carrying an HTTP header and the data itself.

A very simple header example would be

					
print "Content-type: text/html"
print

				

Note that it is necessary to have a new line at the end of the header information. In most cases, the previous line is all you will use in your scripts.

The FieldStorage class, which is implemented by this module, is able to read both the standard input (for POST calls) and the query string (for GET calls). In order to parse the contents of an HTML Form, you need to create an instance of this class.

This instance carries the following attributes:

  • fs.name This is the field's name.

  • fs.valueThis is the field's value.

  • fs.filenameThis client-side filename is used in uploads.

  • fs.fileThis is a file-like object from which data can be read.

  • fs.typeThis is the content type.

  • fs.type_optionsThis dictionary of options is specified on the content-type line of the HTTP request.

  • fs.dispositionThis is the "content-disposition" field, None if not specified.

  • fs.disposition_optionThis is the dictionary of disposition options.

  • fs.headersThis is a dictionary-like object containing all HTTP headers contents.

Each individual form field is defined as an instance of the MiniFieldStorage class, whereas on the contrary, multipart data (such as uploaded files) is defined as an instance of the FieldStorage class itself. Each instance is accessed as a dictionary whose keys are the Form's field names, and the values are their contents. These dictionaries also implement methods such as .keys() and .has_key(). If a specific form field has multiple values (for example, a selection list), a list of multiple MiniFieldStorage instances is generated and assigned to the appropriate key value in the dictionary. The use of MiniFieldStorage is pretty much transparent when using CGI, thus, you don't have to worry about these implementation details.

Note that uploaded files are read directly to the memory by accessing the value attribute of the class instance.

Also note that Python 2.0 provides a new method called getvalue() to the objects of the FieldStorage class, that implements the same functionality of a dictionary's get() method by returning the value attribute of the given object.

Functions

The following list shows some general functions exposed by the cgi module.

cgi.escape(string [,quote]) Translates "<", "&", ">" to "&lt;", "&amp;", "&gt;". If you want to convert the double-quote character, you must set the quote flag to true.

cgi.parse_qs(string, keep_blank_values=0)Parses a query string such as "country=USA&state=PA" to a dictionary-like format, for example, { "country": ["USA"], "state": ["PA"], }

cgi.parse([file], )Parses query strings from default file locations (such as, multiple file objects) from which data can be read, and generates a dictionary. The default behavior is to map the input to stdin.

For CGI debugging, the following functions are available:

cgi.print_environ()Formats the shell environment in HTML.

cgi.print_environ_usage()Prints a list of environment variables, used by CGI, in HTML.

cgi.print_form(form)Formats a form in HTML.

cgi.print_directory() Formats the current directory in HTML.

cgi.test() Tests CGI script. It writes minimal HTTP headers and formats all information provided to the script in HTML form.

The following functions are not part of the CGI module, but they are very useful for CGI processing too.

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