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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Summary





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152015024128143245168232148039199167010047123209178152124239215162148041040022213144158173

Summary

This chapter provides information about how to use Python as a CGI scripting language. Python is suitable for CGI programming on Windows, Mac, and UNIX platforms, allowing the creation of programs that provide services over the Internet.

Python uses the cgi module to implement CGI scripts and to process form handling in Web applications that are invoked by an HTTP server. This module accepts sys.stdin and environment variables set by the server as input sources. The output is sent directly to sys.stdout carrying an HTTP header and the data itself.

Every CGI script must send a header (the Content-type tag) describing the contents of the document. The common values for this tag are text/html, text/plain, image/gif, and image/jpeg. A blank line is used to indicate the end of this header.

You have to watch out when passing Form fields to the OS shell. Never pass any string received from the client direct to a shell command. Before putting your CGI scripts online, you need to be sure that they are working fine.

If you need to correlate requests from the same user, you must generate and assign a session key on the first contact of the user, and incorporate this session key in the next forms, or in the URLs.

In order to handle cookies in Python, you can use a module called Cookie.py, which is able to write Set-Cookie headers and parse the HTTP_COOKIE environment variable.

Python CGI scripts allow you to output not only text, but also graphics.

In order to separate Python code from HTML code, many developers have adopted the concept of template files. The HTML template can be mixed with Python code using either formatting substitution or Python's regular expression.

Sometimes, it is necessary to receive files from users through the Web. The properties provided by the cgi module offer means to send a file across an HTTP connection using an HTML page, and also to read files sent from a Web page.

Environmental variables are one of the methods that Web servers use to pass information to a CGI script. They are created and assigned appropriate values within the environment that the server produces for the CGI script.

Active Scripting is a COM-based technology developed by Microsoft that allows scripting languages to be embedded inside the HTML code. It works by providing a specific language's object model to the user. In our case, after you specify that the scripting language is Python, you acquire access to the interface exposed by the Python object model.

Active Server Pages, commonly referred to as ASP, is Microsoft's solution to server-side scripting applications.

Python Server Pages is a server-side scripting engine designed along the lines of Microsoft's Active Server Pages and Sun's Java Server Pages specification.


Last updated on 1/30/2002
Python Developer's Handbook, © 2002 Sams Publishing

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2002, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.

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