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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Handling Other Markup Languages





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Handling Other Markup Languages

The initial part of this chapter covers XML, which is, undoubtedly, a future promise for the Internet.

The next pages of this section describe additional modules that support other data format standards commonly used on the internet, SGML and HTML.

sgmllib

The sgmllib module is an SGML parser subset. Although it has a simple implementation, it is powerful enough to build the HTML parser.

This module implements the SGMLParser() class.

SGMLParser()

The SGMLParser class is instantiated without arguments. The parser is hardcoded to recognize the following constructs:

  1. Opening and closing tags of the form <tag attr="value > and </tag>, respectively.

  2. Numeric character references of the form &#name;.

  3. Entity references of the form &name;.

  4. SGML comments of the form <!--text-->. Note that spaces, tabs, and newlines are allowed between the trailing > and the immediately preceding -.

SGMLParser instances have the following interface methods (note that the interface is similar to the xmllib one):

reset() Resets the instance. Loses all unprocessed data. This is called implicitly at instantiation time.

setnomoretags() Stops processing tags. Treat all following input as literal input (CDATA). (This is only provided so that the HTML tag <PLAINTEXT> can be implemented.)

setliteral() Enters literal mode (CDATA mode).

feed(data) Feeds some text to the parser. It is processed insofar as it consists of complete elements; incomplete data is buffered until more data is fed or close() is called.

close() Force processing of all buffered data as if it were followed by an end-of-file mark. This method can be redefined by a derived class to define additional processing at the end of the input, but the redefined version should always call close().

handle_starttag(tag, method, attributes) This method is called to handle start tags for which either a start_tag() or do_tag() method has been defined. The tag argument is the name of the tag converted to lowercase, and the method argument is the bound method that should be used to support semantic interpretation of the start tag. The attributes argument is a list of (name, value) pairs containing the attributes found inside the tag's <> brackets. The name has been translated to lowercase, and double quotes and backslashes in the value have been interpreted. For instance, for the tag <A HREF= http://www.cwi.nl/, this method would be called as unknown_starttag('a', [('href', http://www.cwi.nl/)]). The base implementation simply calls a method with attributes as the only argument.

handle_endtag(tag, method) This method is called to handle endtags for which an end_tag() method has been defined. The tag argument is the name of the tag converted to lowercase, and the method argument is the bound method that should be used to support semantic interpretation of the end tag. If no end_tag() method is defined for the closing element, this handler is not called. The base implementation simply calls method.

handle_data(data) This method is called to process arbitrary data. It is intended to be overridden by a derived class; the base class implementation does nothing.

handle_charref(ref) This method is called to process a character reference of the form &#ref;. In the base implementation, ref must be a decimal number in the range 0255. It translates the character to ASCII and calls the method handle_data() with the character as argument. If ref is invalid or out of range, the method unknown_charref(ref) is called to handle the error. A subclass must override this method to provide support for named character entities.

handle_entityref(ref) This method is called to process a general entity reference of the form &ref;, where ref is an general entity reference. It looks for ref in the instance (or class) variable entitydefs that should be a mapping from entity names to corresponding translations. If a translation is found, it calls the method handle_data() with the translation; otherwise, it calls the method

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