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<table width="100%" cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0 border=0 class="navtopbg"><tr><td><font size="1"><p class="navtitle"><a href="8.html" class="navtitle">Web Development</a> &gt; <a href="0672319942.html" class="navtitle">Python Developer's Handbook</a> &gt; <a href="255.html" class="navtitle">A. Python/C API</a> &gt; <span class="nonavtitle">Python/C API</span></p></font></td><td align="right" valign="top" nowrap><font size="1"><a href="main.asp?list" class="safnavoff">See All Titles</a></font></td></tr></table>
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<TABLE border=0 width="100%" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0><TR><td align=left width="15%" class="headingsubbarbg"><a href="256.html" title="A. Python/C API"><font size="1">&lt;&nbsp;BACK</font></a></td><td align=center width="70%" class="headingsubbarbg"><font size="1"><a href="popanote.asp?pubui=oreilly&bookname=0672319942&snode=257" target="_blank" title="Make a public or private annnotation">Make Note</a> | <a href="257.html" title="Use a Safari bookmark to remember this section">Bookmark</a></font></td><td align=right width="15%" class="headingsubbarbg"><a href="258.html" title="The Very High Level Layer"><font size="1">CONTINUE&nbsp;&gt;</font></a></td></TR></TABLE>
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<FONT><h3>Python/C API</h3>
				<p>The Application Programmer's Interface to Python gives C and C++ programmers access to the Python interpreter at a variety of levels. The API is equally usable from C++, but for brevity it is generally referred to as the Python/C API. There are two fundamentally different reasons for using the Python/C API. The first reason is to write extension modules for specific purposes; these are C modules that extend the Python interpreter. This is probably the most common use. The second reason is to use Python as a component in a larger application; this technique is generally referred to as embedding Python in an application.</p>

				<P>Writing an extension module is a relatively well-understood process in which a "cookbook" approach works well. Several tools automate the process to some extent. Although people have embedded Python in other applications since its early existence, the process of embedding Python is less straightforward than writing an extension.</P>

				<P>Many API functions are useful independent of whether you're embedding or extending Python; moreover, most applications that embed Python will need to provide a custom extension as well, so it's probably a good idea to become familiar with writing an extension before attempting to embed Python in a real application.</P>

				<p>Python 1.5 introduces a number of new API functions as well as some changes to the build process that make embedding much simpler. This book describes the 1.5.2 state of affairs.</p>

				<h4>Include Files</h4>
					<P>All function, type, and macro definitions needed to use the Python/C API are included in your code by the following line:</P>

					<PRe>
						
#include "Python.h"

					</pre>

					<P>This implies inclusion of the following standard headers: <TT Class="monofont">&lt;stdio.h&gt;,</tt>
						<tt class="monofont">&lt;string.h&gt;,</tt>
						<tt claSs="monofont">&lt;errno.h&gt;,</tT> and <tt cLass="monofont">&lt;stdlib.h&gt;</tT> (if available).</p>

					<p>All user visible names defined by Python.h (except those defined by the included standard headers) have one of the prefixes <tT CLAss="monofont">Py</tt> or <TT CLass="monofont">_Py.</tT> Names beginning with <TT Class="monofont">_Py</TT> are for internal use by the Python implementation and should not be used by extension writers. Structure member names do not have a reserved prefix.</P>

					<P>Important: User code should never define names that begin with <tt class="monofont">Py</tt> or <tt class="monofont">_Py.</tt> This confuses the reader and jeopardizes the portability of the user code to future Python versions, which might define additional names beginning with one of these prefixes.<a nAme="idx1073750764"></A><a naMe="idx1073750765"></a><a nAme="idx1073750766"></a></P>

					<P>The <A Name="idx1073750767"></a><A NAMe="idx1073750768"></a>header files are typically installed with Python. On UNIX, these are located in the directories <tt CLASs="monofont">$prefix/include/pythonversion/</tt> and <tT CLAss="monofont">$exec_prefix/include/ pythonversion/,</tt> where <tt class="monofont">$prefix</tt> and <tt class="monofont">$exec_prefix</Tt> are defined by the corresponding parameters to Python's configure script and the version is <tT claSs="monofont">sys.version[:3].</tt> On Windows, the headers are installed in <tT claSS="monofont">$prefix/include,</TT> where <tt clASS="monofont">$prefix</Tt> is the installation directory specified to the installer.</p>

					<p>To include the headers, place both directories (if different) on your compiler's search path for includes. Do not place the parent directories on the search path and then use <tT CLAss="monofont">#include &lt;python1.5/Python.h&gt;</tt>; this will break on multi-platform builds because the platform independent headers under <TT CLass="monofont">$prefix</tt> include the platform specific headers from <tt class="monofont">$exec_prefix.</tt></p>

				
				<h4>Objects, Types, and Reference Counts</h4>
					<p>Most Python/C API functions have one or more arguments as well as a return value of type <tt ClaSs="monofont">PyObject*.</tt> This type is a pointer to an opaque data type representing an arbitrary Python object. Because all Python object types are treated the same way by the Python language in most situations (for example, assignments, scope rules, and argument passing), it is only fitting that they should be represented by a single C type. Almost all Python objects live on the heap: You never declare an automatic or static variable of type PyObject; only pointer variables of type <Tt claSs="monofont">PyObject*</tt> can be declared. The sole exceptions are the type objects; because these must never be deallocated, they are typically static <TT CLass="monofont">PyTypeObject</tT> objects.</P>

					<P>All Python objects (even Python integers) have a type and a reference count. An object's type determines what kind of object it is (for example, an integer, a list, or a user-defined function; there are many more as explained in the Python Reference Manual). For each of the well-known types, there is a macro to check whether an object is of that type; for instance, <Tt claSS="monofont">PyList_Check(a)</TT> is true if (and only if) the object it points to is a Python list.<a namE="idx1073750769"></A><A Name="idx1073750770"></a><a name="idx1073750771"></a><a name="idx1073750772"></a><a namE="idx1073750773"></a><a Name="idx1073750774"></A></p>

					<h5>Reference Counts</h5>
						<p>The reference count is important because today's computers have a finite (and often severely limited) memory size; it counts how many different places there are that have a reference to an object. Such a place could be another object, a global (or static) C variable, or a local variable in some C function. When an object's reference count becomes zero, the object is deallocated. If it contains references to other objects, their reference count is decremented. Those other objects might be deallocated in turn, if this decrement makes their reference count become zero, and so on. (There's an obvious problem with objects that reference each other here; for now, the solution is don't do that.)</P>

						<p>Reference counts are always manipulated explicitly. The normal way is to use the <a nAME="idx1073750775"></A>macro <a namE="idx1073750776"></A><A Name="idx1073750777"></a><TT CLass="monofont">Py_INCREF()</tT> to increment an object's reference count by one, and <A NAme="idx1073750778"></a><a name="idx1073750779"></a><tt class="monofont">Py_DECREF()</tt> to decrement it by one. The decref macro is considerably more complex than the incref one because it must check whether the reference count becomes zero, and then causes the object's deallocation by calling a function contained in the object's type structure. The type-specific deallocator takes care of <a nAme="idx1073750780"></A>decrementing the reference counts for other objects contained in the object, and so on, if this is a compound object type such as a list. There's no chance that the reference count can overflow; at least as many bits are used to hold the reference count as there are distinct memory locations in virtual memory (assuming <tt cLass="monofont">sizeof(long) &gt;= sizeof(char *)</tT>). Thus, the reference count increment is a simple operation. You should only pass a variable to <tt cLASS="monofont">Py_DECREF</tt> or <a nAME="idx1073750781"></A><a namE="idx1073750782"></A><TT clasS="monofont">Py_XDECREF.</TT> If you pass an expression, it will be evaluated multiple times (so don't use <Tt class="monofont">Py_XDECREF(func(...))</tt> to ignore the return value of a function).<a name="idx1073750783"></a><a name="idx1073750784"></a><A naMe="idx1073750785"></a><a Name="idx1073750786"></a><A namE="idx1073750787"></A><A Name="idx1073750788"></a><A NAMe="idx1073750789"></a></p>

						<p>It is not necessary to <A NAMe="idx1073750790"></a>increment an object's refer
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