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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Concrete Objects Layer





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Concrete Objects Layer

The functions in this section are specific to certain Python object types. Passing them an object of the wrong type is not a good idea; if you receive an object from a Python program and you are not sure that it has the right type, you must perform a type check first; for example: to check that an object is a dictionary, use PyDict_Check(). This section is structured similar to the "family tree" of Python object types.

Fundamental Objects

This section describes Python type objects and the singleton object None.

Type Objects
							
PyTypeObject

						

The C structure of the objects used to describe built-in types.

							
PyObject* PyType_Type

						

This is the type object for type objects; it is the same object as types.TypeType in the Python layer.

							
int PyType_Check(PyObject *o)

						

Returns true if the object o is a type object.

							
int PyType_HasFeature(PyObject *o, int feature)

						

Returns true if the type object o sets the feature identified by the feature argument. Type features are denoted by single bit flags. The only defined feature flag is Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GETCHARBUFFER, which is described in a later section.

The None Object

Note that the PyTypeObject for None is not directly exposed in the Python/C API. Because None is a singleton, testing for object identity (using == in C) is sufficient. There is no PyNone_Check() function for the same reason.

							
PyObject* Py_None

						

The Python None object denotes lack of value. This object has no methods.

Sequence Objects

Generic operations on sequence objects were discussed in the previous subsection; this subsection deals with the specific kinds of sequence objects that are intrinsic to the Python language.

String Objects
							
PyStringObject

						

This subtype of PyObject represents a Python string object.

							
PyTypeObject PyString_Type

						

This instance of PyTypeObject represents the Python string type; it is the same object as types.TypeType in the Python layer.

							
int PyString_Check(PyObject *o)

						

Returns true if the object o is a string object.

							
PyObject* PyString_FromString(const char *v)

						

Return value: New reference. Returns a new string object with the value v on success, and NULL on failure.

							
PyObject* PyString_FromStringAndSize(const char *v, int len)

						

Return value: New reference. Returns a new string object with the value v and length len on success, and NULL on failure. If v is NULL, the contents of the string are uninitialized.

							
int PyString_Size(PyObject *string)

						

Returns the length of the string object identified by the given pointer.

							
int PyString_GET_SIZE(PyObject *string)

						

Macro form of PyString_GetSize() but without error checking.

							
char* PyString_AsString(PyObject *string)

						

Returns a null-terminated representation of the contents of string. The pointer refers to the internal buffer of string, not a copy. The data must not be modified in any way. It must not be de-allocated.

							
char* PyString_AS_STRING(PyObject *string)

						

Macro form of PyString_AsString() but without error checking.

							
void PyString_Concat(PyObject **string, PyObject *newpart)

						

Creates a new string object in *string containing the contents of newpart appended to string. The old value of string has its reference count decremented. If the new string cannot be created, the old reference to string will still be discarded and the value of *string will be set to NULL; the appropriate exception will be set.

							
void PyString_ConcatAndDel(PyObject **string, PyObject *newpart)

						

Creates a new string object in *string containing the contents of newpart appended to string. This version decrements the reference count of newpart.

							
int _PyString_Resize(PyObject **string, int newsize)

						

A way to resize a string object even though it is "immutable". Only use this to build up a brand new string object; don't use this if the string might already be known in other parts of the code.

							
PyObject* PyString_Format(PyObject *format, PyObject *args)

						

Return value: New reference. Returns a new string object from format and args. Analogous to format % args. The args argument must be a tuple.

							
void PyString_InternInPlace(PyObject **string)

						

Interns the argument *string in place. The argument must be the address of a pointer variable pointing to a Python string object. If there is an existing interned string that is the same as *string, it sets *string to it (decrementing the reference count of the old string object and incrementing the reference count of the interned string object), otherwise it leaves *string alone and interns it (incrementing its reference count). (Clarification: even though there is a lot of talk about reference counts, think of this function as reference-countneutral; you own the object after the call if and only if you owned it before the call.)

							
PyObject* PyString_InternFromString(const char *v)

						

Return value: New reference. A combination of PyString_FromString() and PyString_InternInPlace(), returning either a new string object that has been interned, or a new ("owned") reference to an earlier interned string object with the same value.

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