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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Initialization, Finalization, and Threads





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Initialization, Finalization, and Threads

					
void Py_Initialize()

				

Initialize the Python interpreter. In an application embedding Python, this should be called before using any other Python/C API functions; with the exception of Py_SetProgramName(), PyEval_InitThreads(), PyEval_ReleaseLock(), and PyEval_AcquireLock(). This initializes the table of loaded modules (sys.modules), and creates the fundamental modules __builtin__, __main__, and sys. It also initializes the module search path (sys.path). It does not set sys.argv; it uses PySys_SetArgv() for that. This is a no-operation when called for a second time (without calling Py_Finalize() first). There is no return value; it is a fatal error if the initialization fails.

					
int Py_IsInitialized()

				

Returns true (nonzero) when the Python interpreter has been initialized, false (zero) if not. After Py_Finalize() is called, this returns false until Py_Initialize() is called again.

					
void Py_Finalize()

				

Undoes all initializations made by Py_Initialize() and subsequent uses of Python/C API functions, and destroys all sub-interpreters (see Py_NewInterpreter() in the following) that were created and not yet destroyed since the last call to Py_Initialize(). Ideally, this frees all memory allocated by the Python interpreter. This is a no-op when called for a second time (without calling Py_Initialize() again first). There is no return value; errors during finalization are ignored.

This function is provided for a number of reasons. An embedding application might want to restart Python without having to restart the application itself. An application that has loaded the Python interpreter from a dynamic link library (or DLL) might want to free all memory allocated by Python before unloading the DLL. During a hunt for memory leaks in an application, a developer might want to free all memory allocated by Python before exiting from the application.

Bugs and caveats include: The destruction of modules and objects in modules is done in random order; this can cause destructors (__del__() methods) to fail when they depend on other objects (even functions) or modules. Dynamically loaded extension modules loaded by Python are not unloaded. Small amounts of memory allocated by the Python interpreter might not be freed (if you find a leak, please report it to the development team). Memory tied up in circular references between objects is not freed. Some memory allocated by extension modules might not be freed. Some extension might not work properly if their initialization routine is called more than once; this can happen if an application calls Py_Initialize() and Py_Finalize() more than once.

					
PyThreadState* Py_NewInterpreter()

				

Creates a new sub-interpreter. This is an (almost) totally separate environment for the execution of Python code. In particular, the new interpreter has separate, independent versions of all imported modules, including the fundamental modules __builtin__, __main__, and sys. The table of loaded modules (sys.modules) and the module search path (sys.path) are also separate. The new environment has no sys.argv variable. It has new standard I/O stream file objects sys.stdin, sys.stdout, and sys.stderr (however, these refer to the same underlying FILE structures in the C library).

The return value points to the first thread state created in the new sub-interpreter. This thread state is made the current thread state. Note that no actual thread is created; see the discussion of thread states later. If the creation of the new interpreter is unsuccessful, NULL is returned; no exception is set because the exception state is stored in the current thread state and there might not be a current thread state. (Like all other Python/C API functions, the global interpreter lock must be held before calling this function and is still held when it returns; however, unlike most other Python/C API functions, there needn't be a current thread state on entry.)

Extension modules are shared between (sub-)interpreters as follows: the first time a particular extension is imported, it is initialized normally, and a (shallow) copy of its module's dictionary is squirreled away. When the same extension is imported by another (sub-)interpreter, a new module is initialized and filled with the contents of this copy; the extension's init function is not called. Note that this is different from what happens when an extension is imported after the interpreter has been completely re-initialized by calling Py_Finalize() and Py_Initialize(); in that case, the extension's initmodule function is called again.

Bugs and caveats include: Because sub-interpreters (and the main interpreter) are part of the same process, the insulation between them isn't perfectfor example, using low-level file operations like os.close(), they can (accidentally or maliciously) affect each other's open files. Because of the way extensions are shared between (sub-)interpreters, some extensions might not work properly; this is especially likely when the extension makes use of (static) global variables, or when the extension manipulates its module's dictionary after its initialization. It is possible to insert objects created in one sub-interpreter into a namespace of another sub-interpreter; this should be done with great care to avoid sharing user-defined functions, methods, instances or classes between sub-interpreters because import operations executed by such objects might affect the wrong (sub-)interpreter's dictionary of loaded modules.

Note

This is a hard-to-fix bug that will be addressed in a future release.



					
void Py_EndInterpreter(PyThreadState *tstate)

				

Destroys the (sub-)interpreter represented by the given thread state. The given thread state must be the current thread state. See the discussion of thread states later. When the call returns, the current thread state is NULL. All thread states associated with this interpreter are destroyed. (The global interpreter lock must be held before calli ... ... (Not finished, please download and read the complete file)

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