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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Defining New Object Types





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Defining New Object Types

					
PyObject* _PyObject_New(PyTypeObject *type)

				

Return value: New reference.

					
PyObject* _PyObject_NewVar(PyTypeObject *type, int size)

				

Return value: New reference.

Common Object Structures

Next, you have a list of object structures commonly used in type and method definitions.

PyObject PyVarObject
PyObject_HEAD PyObject_HEAD_INIT PyObject_VAR_HEAD
unaryfunc binaryfunc ternaryfunc
inquiry coercion intargfunc
intintargfunc intobjargproc intintobjargproc
objobjargproc destructor printfunc
getattrfunc getattrofunc setattrfunc
setattrofunc cmpfunc reprfunc
hashfunc

The document How to Write a Python Extension, by Michael Reilly lists and explains the prototypes of these structures. It also demonstrates how to create new Python types.

http://starship.python.net/crew/arcege/extwriting/pyext.html

Mapping Object Structures

						
PyMappingMethods

					

Structure used to hold pointers to the functions used to implement the mapping protocol for an extension type.

Number Object Structures

						
PyNumberMethods

					

Structure used to hold pointers to the functions, which an extension type uses to implement the number protocol.

Sequence Object Structures

						
PySequenceMethods

					

Structure used to hold pointers to the functions which an object uses to implement the sequence protocol.

Buffer Object Structures

The buffer interface exports a model where an object can expose its internal data as a set of chunks of data, where each chunk is specified as a pointer/length pair. These chunks are called segments and are presumed to be non-contiguous in memory.

If an object does not export the buffer interface, its tp_as_buffer member in the PyTypeObject structure should be NULL. Otherwise, the tp_as_buffer will point to a PyBufferProcs structure.

Note

It is very important that your PyTypeObject structure uses Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT for the value of the tp_flags member rather than 0. This tells the Python runtime that your PyBufferProcs structure contains the bf_getcharbuffer slot. Older versions of Python did not have this member, so a new Python interpreter using an old extension needs to be able to test for its presence before using it.



						
PyBufferProcs

					

Structure used to hold the function pointers that define an implementation of the buffer protocol.

The first slot is bf_getreadbuffer, of type getreadbufferproc. If this slot is NULL, the object does not support reading from the internal data. This is nonsensical, so implementers should fill this in, but callers should test that the slot contains a non-NULL value.

The next slot is bf_getwritebuffer having type getwritebufferproc. This slot can be NULL if the object does not allow writing into its returned buffers.

The third slot is bf_getsegcount, with type getsegcountproc. This slot must not be NULL and is used to inform the caller of how many segments the object contains. Simple objects such as PyString_Type and PyBuffer_Type contain a single segment.

The last slot is bf_getcharbuffer, of type getcharbufferproc. This slot will only be present if the Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GETCHARBUFFER flag is present in the tp_flags field of the object's PyTypeObject. Before using this slot, the caller should test whether it is present by using the PyType_HasFeature() function. If present, it might be NULL, indicating that the object's contents cannot be used as 8-bit characters. The slot function can also raise an error if the object's contents cannot be interpreted as 8-bit characters. For example, if the object is an array that is configured to hold floating point values, an exception might be raised if a caller attempts to use bf_getcharbuffer t ... ... (Not finished, please download and read the complete file)

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