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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> Generic Operational System





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Generic Operational System

This group of services provides interfaces to operating system features that you can use in almost every platform. Most of Python's operating system modules are based on the Posix interface.

os

The os module is a portable OS API that searches for Operating-Systemdependent built-in modules (mac, posix, nt), and exports their functionality using the same interface. Certain tools are available only on platforms that support them. However, it is highly recommended that you use this module instead of the platform-specific modules, which are really an implementation detail of os. By using the os module, you make your program more portable.

os.environ

This is a dictionary that contains all the environment variables.

You can search for a specific variable:

							
>>> import os
>>> path = os.environ["PATH"]    #USER, EDITOR, etc

						

or list all of them:

							
>>> for key in os.environ.keys():
        print key, " = " , os.environ[key]


						
os.name

It returns the name of the current system.

							
>>> name = os.name      # "posix","dos","mac","nt"
nt

						
os.getcwd()

This function returns the current working directory.

							
>>> os.getcwd()
'C:\ \ Program Files\ \ Python'

						
os.curdir

This is a simple constant that returns the OS-specific string used to identify the current directory.

							
>>> os.curdir
'.'

						
os.listdir()

If directory is omitted, it lists the filenames of the current directory. Otherwise, it lists the filenames of directory.

basic syntax: os.listdir([directory])

							
>>> files = os.listdir(os.curdir)

						
os.rename()

It renames a file.

basic syntax: os.rename(oldfile, newfile)

os.chmod()

It changes the file mode. This is a UNIX command.

basic syntax: os.chmod(file, mode)

os.system()

It opens an Operating System subshell and executes the command.

basic syntax: os.system(command)

							
>>> os.system("rm -rf " + filename)

						
os.popen()

This is a UNIX function that returns a file-like object. It allows you to execute a shell command and read the standard output of external pipes (by setting mode to r) or write to their standard input (by setting mode to w). The default mode is r. Note that even though popen is a UNIX function, it is also implemented on the other Python ports.

basic syntax: os.popen(shell command, mode)

							
>>> file = os.popen('sed \ 's/yes/no/g'> output','w')
>>> file.write("yes\ n")
>>>
>>> file = os.popen('cat manual.txt', 'r')
>>> f = file.read()

						
os.remove()

It deletes a file.

basic syntax: os.remove(file)

os.mkdir()

It creates a new directory.

basic syntax: os.mkdir(directory)

os.rmdir()

It removes an existing directory.

basic syntax: os.rmdir(directory)

os.removedirs()

It is a wrapper for rmdir that deletes everything under the directory.

basic syntax: os.removedirs(directory)

os.path

The os.path is a module imported by the os module that exposes useful common functions to manipulate pathnames. Remember that you don't have to explicitly import os.path. You get it for free when you import os.

os.path.exists()

It returns true if path really exists.

basic syntax: os.path.exists(path)

os.path.isfile()

It returns true if the specified path is a file.

basic syntax: os.path.isfile(path)

os.path.isdir()

It returns true if the specified path is a directory.

basic syntax: os.path.isdir(path)

os.path.split()

It splits filename, returning a tuple that contains the directory structure and filename, which together combine the original filename argument.

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