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Safari | Python Developer's Handbook -> The Standard Exception Hierarchy





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The Standard Exception Hierarchy

Python comes filled with many built-in exceptions. All these exceptions are part of the exceptions module, which is always loaded prior to any program execution.

The following structure identifies the standard exception hierarchy, and, immediately afterwards, it is given the description of each exception type.

This structure, which resembles a tree, shows you that all exceptions are derived from a base class named Exception. If we highlight, for example, the ImportError exception, we note that it is a subclass of the StandardError class. In addition to that, the StandardError class is a subclass of the Exception class. Table 4.1 shows the structure.

Table4.1. The Exception Class Hierarchy
Exception
SystemExit
StandardError

KeyboardInterrupt

ImportError

EnvironmentError

IOError

OSError

EOFError

RuntimeError

NotImplementedError

NameError

UnboundLocalError

AttributeError

SyntaxError

TypeError

AssertionError

LookupError

IndexError

KeyError

ArithmeticError

OverflowError

ZeroDivisionError

FloatingPointError

ValueError

SystemError

MemoryError

Exception This is the root class. All exception classes are subclasses of this base class. Every user exception class should be derived from this class too.

SystemExit This is an exception because it isn't really an error message. Instead, it can be used to exit a program. The important thing is that this exception doesn't return any traceback message.

StandardError It is the base class for all errors (except for SystemExit, of course).

KeyboardInterrupt It is raised when an interrupt key, such as CTRL+C, is pressed.

ImportError It is raised when Python cannot find a module to import.

EnvironmentError This is the base class for errors that occur outside the Python environment. The IOError and OSError classes subclass it.

IOError It is raised by I/O operation errors.

OSError This one is raised by operating system errors, usually generated by the os module.

EOFError Exception raised when an End-of-File (EOF) error occurs.

RuntimeError This is a special type of exception raised by errors that aren't covered by any of the other exceptions.

NotImplementedError Methods or functions that aren't implemented should raise this exception.

							
>>> def updateregistry():
>>>     raise NotImplementedError

						

NameError It is raised when the interpreter finds a name that is neither in the local nor in the global namespace.

UnboundLocalError This is a new exception that was created for version 1.6. It subclasses the NameError exception, raising an error when a local variable is undefined.

AttributeError It is raised by attribute reference and attribute assignment kinds of errors. Note that starting with version 1.6, this exception will have a more friendly error message, which is expected to break some code that assumes the message to be exactly equivalent to the attribute name.

SyntaxError It is raised by syntax errors.

TypeError This exception is raised when you try to apply a function operation to an object of inappropriate type.

AssertionError This kind of exception is raised when an assert state ... ... (Not finished, please download and read the complete file)

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